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Take your game farther by learning about the times and places presented in the game. Explore this section, where you can read articles, see pictures, and follow links—don't worry, all this hard work will help you score higher when you play the game!

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The Jazz Age

The Jazz Age refers to the period in American history from the ending of World War I in 1918 to the beginning of the Great Depression in 1929. American writer F. Scott Fitzgerald is credited with first using the term in 1922 to describe the dramatic social, cultural, and political changes taking place in America during what came to be known as the "Roaring Twenties". The Jazz Age derived its name from the rise in popularity of jazz music, a musical style born in the African-American communities of the United States during the early 1900s that crossed racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries to become the signature music of the 1920s. While the Jazz Age is often characterized as an age of prosperity, bootleggers, gangsters, flappers, and a glorification of city life, it was also a period of deep cultural conflict between an old and new America. Immigration, race, evolution, alcohol, and the role of women in politics were at the forefront of this conflict as a modern, youth-oriented, urban culture battled an older, conservative, rural culture to define the attitudes, morals, and values of the time.

The Jazz Age was especially liberating for many young women who openly defied the traditional social norms and values of the previous generation. These women, known as "flappers", challenged the traditional ideas of a woman's role in society by cutting their hair short, wearing short skirts, and going to jazz clubs. Viewed as reckless and fiercely independent, flappers created new dances such as the Charleston and the Shimmy, possessed their own distinctive fashion style, and developed their own slang. Despite their challenges to the traditional ideas of how a woman should behave, most flappers were not as concerned about political or social reform as they were about seeking out new forms of entertainment. Their free-spirited attitude, along with the general prosperity of the nation as a whole, did not survive the Great Depression.

Philip Shutze

Born in 1890 in Columbus, Georgia, Philip Trammell Shutze (1890-1982) is regarded by many architects and historians as one of America's finest classical architects. As the designer of over 750 architectural works, Shutze designed residential, commercial, and institutional buildings throughout Atlanta, the most notable perhaps, being the Swan House in Buckhead. Shutze studied architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology from 1908 to 1912, then at Columbia University in New York from 1912 to 1913, and after winning the Rome Prize, studied at the American Academy in Rome, Italy, from 1915 to 1917 and again from 1919 to 1920. His architectural style was greatly influenced by the classical and Beaux Arts traditions he observed while studying in Rome. These traditions consisted of buildings that were symmetrical in design and featured an extraordinary amount of architectural details and decorative elements including grand entrances, large staircases, a heavy use of floral patterns as artistic detail, and the presence of sculptures throughout the interior of the building as well as the exterior landscape.

The Swan House

The Swan House was designed by Philip Shutze and built in 1928 for Edward and Emily Inman, two wealthy Atlanta citizens who developed an appreciation for European architecture after travelling extensively through Europe. The house is an eclectic mix of Italian, English, and Classical architectural styles. The name of the house is taken from the swan or bird motifs found throughout many of the interior rooms. There are many elaborate retaining walls, staircases, fountains, and stone monuments along the exterior grounds of the house. The interior of the house is just as elaborate and features five rooms of distinction: the entrance vestibule, the entrance hall, the library, the Morning Room and the Dining Room. Other rooms include four bedroom areas, a full basement, a sitting room, and an apartment in the attic. In 1966, the Atlanta Historical Society purchased the Swan House and most of its original furnishings. The house opened to the public in 1967.

Herbert Hoover

Herbert Hoover served as America's 31st President from 1929 to 1933. Born in Iowa in 1874, Hoover grew up in Oregon and later attended Stanford University where he graduated as a mining engineer. He then went to China and worked for a private corporation as China's leading engineer. At the outset of World War I, Hoover assisted in getting over 120,000 Americans stranded in France back home to the United States and also helped with relief efforts to feed the people of Belgium after the country was overtaken by the German army. Soon after the United States entered the war, Hoover was appointed head of the Food Administration by President Woodrow Wilson. By the end of the war in 1918, he was head of the American Relief Association and organized shipments of food to millions of people starving in Europe. In 1928, Hoover became the Republican Presidential nominee and campaigned for President as a strong supporter of Prohibition, which was the primary issue of the campaign. Hoover won the Presidency in a landslide victory over Democratic candidate Al Smith who wanted Prohibition to be repealed. In October 1929, just months after Hoover was inaugurated as President, the American stock market collapsed signaling the beginning of the Great Depression. Despite his efforts at attempting to alleviate economic hardship through a number of proposals and programs, the effect of the Depression on the American people was devastating and led to Hoover's defeat for reelection in 1932. However, during the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover continued his career as a public servant by serving on a number of committees and organizations under Presidents Truman and Eisenhower. He died on October 20, 1964, leaving behind a legacy as an accomplished humanitarian and engineer. His efforts to combat the Great Depression further defined his Presidency and place in American history.

Additional Reading

Jazz Music (PBS Kids)
Philip Shutze (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Philip Shutze Article (Buckhead Community Website) Swan House Photo (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Late Victorian Architecture (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Swan House (Atlanta History Center)

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